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What is Kubernetes? Definition, Function and How It Works


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You certainly want the application project or website that you are working on to run well. However, if the app gets bigger and bigger, how do you keep it compact and fast? Kubernetes can be a solution.

What is Kubernetes? In this article, we will discuss it in full, starting from its understanding, features, and how it works. Come on, let’s see!

What is Kubernetes?

Kubernetes is an open source platform for managing container collections in a server cluster. This platform was first developed by Google and is now managed by the Cloud Native Computing Foundation (CNCF) as a popular container management platform.

The container itself is an environment with the resources, CPU, and filesystem for a single application. So, the application will have its own resource. The advantage is that the application is not easy to experience downtime.

illustrated by the governors

Kubernetes has the ability to perform application scheduling, server load balancing and container capacity building automatically.

Not surprisingly, Kubernetes is now widely used to build microservices, which are small applications that become the development of large applications and are connected to one another.

By using Kubernetes, the application development process is faster because of the process Upgrade applications are not made all at once as in the monolith approach.

Some companies that use microservices in their products include Netflix, Amazon and Apple. This is what makes Kubernetes more and more popular thanks to the need for use in modern applications.

Then, what are the components in Kubernetes?

Kubernetes components

The following are the components of Kubernetes:


A cluster is a group of physical servers or VPS to run Kubernetes. There are two types of servers required, viz master node and worker node.

the cluster governor
  1. Master Node

The master node is the main server which manages all cluster operations using three components, namely kube-apiserver, kube-controller-manager, kube-scheduler and etcd.

Below is an explanation of its functions:

  • cube-apiserver: validation and configuration data for API objects, namely pods, services, volumes, and others.
  • kube- controller-manager: perform a cluster monitor to match the configuration data objects in the node.
  • kube-scheduler: add a new object to the node. For example, installing a pod to a specific node.
  • Etcd: storage space for key value cluster data configuration.
  1. Worker Node

Worker nodes are all non-master servers that function to run two components, namely kubelet and kube-proxy. Here’s an explanation of the function of the components:

  • Kubelet: component to ensure the container operates inside a Pod object.
  • Kube-proxy: maintain network rules and forward connections to a host.
  • Docker picture: files from the Docker application that are used to create containers.
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In a cluster, there are various objects, namely entities that represent the conditions of a cluster. There are various objects in a Kubernetes cluster, namely:

  1. Below

Pods are the smallest objects in the kubernetes cluster that reside on nodes. Its function is to run docker images which form a container.

nodes in the cluster
  1. Service

Services are objects that are used to direct requests or traffic to multiple Pods using the IP address. The goal is to make the Pod accessible from outside.

how the kubernetes service works
  1. Volume

Volume is an object that functions to store data in a container. It is located outside the container. For example, awsElasticBlockStore, azureDisk, azureFile, cephfs, cinder, configMap.

In the image below, the volume is / min / data while is the service.

kubernetes volume
  1. Namespace

A namespace is an object for separating resource or cluster environments. Namespaces allow you to separate each cluster project so as not to interfere with each other.

kubernetes namespace

How Kubernetes Works

After knowing about Kubernetes components and their functions, we will explain how Kubernetes works, which is often referred to as a platform for container orchestration.

Now, imagine that you are watching an orchestra with many musicians holding different musical instruments. Each of these musicians can be likened to a docker container working in the Kubernetes cluster.

analog receptacle container

Then, you will also see the music conductor who is in charge of arranging the musicians to play musical instruments according to the instructions given. You can think of Kubernetes as the conductor managing your applications to run on command.

the conductor analogy to kubernetes

Like a music conductor, Kubernetes also manages aspects of your application. These range from managing the workloads of all the containers such as when the guitar is played or the drums start hitting, to increasing the scalability of the containers such as determining how many trumpet players sound the notes.

an analogue of the scalability controller
analogue of the Kubernetes scalability

The music conductor uses mutually agreed guidelines in the form of scores like Kubernetes which has a command file to run on the Kubernetes cluster system.

In the cluster there is a Kubernetes core brain called the control plane. Its function is to expose the API Server which handles internal and external requests. All requests to run the cluster are stored in the etcd database.

API server

Like the brains of the conductor designing an orchestral system, the Kubernetes control plane manages worker nodes which contain collections of nodes or servers. Each node has a kubelet, which is an application running to communicate with the control plane.

how the API Server works

Now, the nodes that are managed by worker nodes contain many containers or musicians. You can think of a node as a group of percussionists on one side and a group of trumpet musicians on the other.

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Inside the container, there are applications that you run like a musical instrument played by musicians in the orchestra group.

Then, what are the real advantages of Kubernetes to become such a popular platform today?

Kubernetes excellence

Kubernetes has features that make it easy for you to develop applications, namely:

1. Service Discovery and Load Balancing

The service discovery feature makes it easy to track containers automatically. This is of course very important in developing microservices applications. Kubernetes can identify a service based on the DNS or IP address of the server.

Not only that, thanks to Load Balancing, traffic management is made easier. When there is a large enough traffic, Kubernetes is able to share the load evenly, making the application more stable.

2. Storage Orchestration

Kubernetes allows you to mount your preferred storage media such as local or cloud-based storage such as AWS and others.

3. Automatic Launch and Rollback

Automated rollouts and rollback features are very important to help you with your deployment. In Kubernetes, deployments can use the YAML file which will contain the ReplicaSet.

If you have deployment issues, and you still have a ReplicaSet from the previous version, you can use it to rollback. You can also use this when you are doing other deployments.

4. Automatic Bin Packing

Using the Automatic Bin Packing feature, you can set the CPU capacity and resources of each container specifically. So when the capacity limit has been determined, the application will avoid scrambling for resources. In addition, it will save more resources.

5. Self-healing

The self-healing feature is very important for those of you who want to continue running the application for 24 hours. Now, Kubernetes has the ability to check existing containers, whether they are running or have errors.

If there is a container problem, Kubernetes will stop the running process and give you the option to restart or automatically replace the container with the error.

Interestingly, traffic will not be routed to a damaged container until it is ready to accept another request.

6. Confidential and Configuration Management

Kubernetes allows you to store sensitive data such as passwords, auth tokens and SSH keys into Kubernetes Secret. This is certainly much safer than storing it in a container image.

Secret can be created by the system or by the user, namely yourself. Now, because the secret itself is stored unencrypted by default, you can make further configurations as needed, including opaque (general / default secret), docker registry (for docker registry authentication), and TLS (for use with public / private keys. ).

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Then, how is the feature implemented? This feature is executed by several components in Kubernetes. See the next discussion.

Kubernetes Vs Docker

Kubernetes is often compared to Docker because they both manage containers. In fact, the two platforms are different and do not replace each other.

Docker is a platform that functions to create containers for applications in its role as a container manager. Meanwhile, Kubernetes is the platform of the entire working ecosystem which contains a collection of container managers.

In short, Docker can be part of Kubernetes and not the other way around. However, you can use both of them together in a working ecosystem.

Docker itself has an ecosystem platform called Docker Swarm. So, the real comparison is between Kubernetes and Docker Swarm.

However, here’s a Kubernetes vs Docker comparison table to make it easier for you to understand:

Parameter Governor Docker
Definition Application for managing containers in a server cluster Application for creating containers on a server
Spread Combination of pods and services Service group
Scalability Automatically increase the number of pods Perform service replication manually
Load balancer Use a service that exposes Pods Use DNS to distribute traffic to a service
Use Must be on a container platform Can run without other platforms

Oh yes, Docker is still a favorite among other container software because its Docker Engine can run in various ecosystems. This is what makes Docker suitable for building applications that are measurable.

Unfortunately, the development of an application that is too complex will become difficult to manage. That’s why Kubernetes is needed.

It is important to note that to be able to build applications that are measurable, Of course, you have to use a server that can be adjusted according to your resource requirements. For this reason, VPS services are the most appropriate to use.

Niagahoster VPS Supports Kubernetes!

Now, you understand what Kubernetes is, right? Kubernetes is a platform for managing your project applications in a container system.

With Kubernetes, you can easily develop applications because its features support scalability, load balancing, and maintenance well.

To support the development of your application, use a VPS hosting service whose performance can be relied on. So, the application can run properly without resource constraints.

Niagahoster VPS service can be your choice because it supports Kubernetes! You can subscribe to VPS services starting from IDR104 thousand / month only!

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Tips and Triks

What is Kubernetes? Definition, Function and How It Works

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